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What is thyroid? What are most common types of thyroid in India?

Learn more about thyroid condition. Types of thyroids and their symptoms
Arpit Gupta
Arpit Gupta
Apr 173 min read
What is thyroid? What are most common types of thyroid in India?

What is Thyroid ?

The thyroid is a butterfly-shaped gland that sits low on the front of the neck. 

The thyroid secretes several hormones, collectively called thyroid hormones. The main hormone is thyroxine, also called T4. Thyroid hormones act throughout the body, influencing metabolism, growth and development, and body temperature. 


1. Thyroid nodules

A lump in the thyroid, the butterfly-shaped gland at the base of the neck.

2. Hypothyroidism

A condition in which the thyroid gland doesn't produce enough thyroid hormone. This is by far the most common type of thyroid conditions existing in India.

3. Hyperthyroidism

The overproduction of a hormone by the butterfly-shaped gland in the neck (thyroid).

4. Goiter

Abnormal enlargement of the butterfly-shaped gland below the Adam's apple (thyroid).

5. Thyroiditis

Inflammation of the thyroid, the butterfly-shaped gland in the neck.

6. Thyroid cancer

A cancer of the thyroid, the butterfly-shaped gland at the base of the neck.

How does thyroid affect your body?

Hypothyroidism is a disease where the person affected has an under-functioning thyroid. When you have hypothyroidism, certain body functions slow down and may lead to fatigue, dry skin, and memory problems. Hypothyroidism is diagnosed with a blood test.

  1. Hypothyroidism can affect many different systems in the body. It makes and stores thyroid hormones that affect nearly every cell in your body.
  2. Approximately 90% of primary hypothyroidism is caused by Hashimoto’s thyroiditis, an autoimmune disease in which your immune system mistakenly attacks your thyroid gland.
  3. Metabolism affects your body temperature and at what rate you burn calories. That’s why people with hypothyroidism often feel cold and fatigued and may gain weight easily.
  4. Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the thyroid gland does not make enough thyroid hormone.

Thyroid hormones are very important. They help control growth, cell repair, and metabolism, the process by which your body converts what you eat into energy.

The Most Common Symptoms 

  • Loss of energy, fatigue
  • Feeling cold
  • Dry skin and hair
  • Hair loss
  • Mild weight gain
  • Loss of appetite
  • Memory loss
  • Feeling pins and needles in hands and feet
  • Constipation
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome
  • Heavier or worsening menstrual periods and cramps
  • Irritability
  • Depression
  • Goiter
  • Growth delay (in children)

Some Symptoms are considered severe, although the ranges of severity differ from person to person.

  • Slow than normal (for the patient) heart rate
  • High blood pressure
  • High cholesterol

How Hypothyroidism Affects Metabolism ?

Thyroid hormone helps control the speed of your metabolism. The faster your metabolism, the more calories your body burns at rest.

People with hypothyroidism make less thyroid hormone. This means they have a slower metabolism and burn fewer calories at rest.

Slow Metabolism causes several health risks like Tiredness,Increase blood Cholesterol levels and harder to lose weight.

For learning more about foods specific to thyroid, do go through out blog on foods & thyroid here.

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